What causes kidney stones

At some point in our lives, it is believed that in every twenty people, one will develop a kidney stone. So, what are the causes of kidney stones? Well, there are plenty of reasons why kidney stones are formed in both men and women.

Volume of Urine is decreased: A reduction in the volume of urine together with the presence of stone-forming substances in excess in the urine can result to formation of kidney stones. The chemical which is most often present in kidney stones is calcium with either phosphate or oxalate. Formation of kidney stone can also result due to chemical compounds like amino acid cystine and uric acid.

Dehydration: This can happen because of less fluid intake resulting to increase risk for kidney stones. Moreover, kidney stones will form due to insufficient replacement of fluid which can lead to sweating while performing strenuous exercises.

Some Medical Conditions: Some medical conditions that can cause an increased risk for developing kidney stones are:

• Gout causing an increased amount of uric acid in the urine. This can lead to the formation of uric acid stones.

• Presence of high calcium in the urine or hypercalciuria which is a hereditary disease resulting to formation of stones. Calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate stones are formed when excess of calcium is absorbed from food and then excreted into the urine.

• Kidney stones are also possible due to kidney diseases like inherited metabolic conditions such as cystinuria and renal tubular acidosis.

• Those who suffer from chronic diseases like diabetes and hypertension have increased risk for the development of this condition.

• Individuals who previously had an intestinal bypass are more likely to develop kidney stones and also those with inflammatory bowel diseases.

Medication: Some medications such as Topiramate which is a drug frequently prescribed for the treatment of seizures and migraine headaches will increase the risk for the development of kidney stones. Formation of kidney stones is also possible due to medications like some drugs used in treating HIV related infection, calcium-containing acids and diuretics.

Other causes of kidney stones are:

• Diets which are low in calcium but with high protein content
• Sedentary lifestyle
• Obesity and increase in weight
• Men are more likely to have kidney stones than women
• Individuals between thirty to fifty years old are more susceptible to it.
• Positive family history of kidney stones or the risk of kidney stones is hereditary
• In the past, kidney stones developed
• It is thought that Caucasians are more frequently affected when compared to any other race.

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