Endocrine system diseases

The endocrine glands of the human body consist of the pituitary, thyroid, adrenal and parathyroid. Listed below are the diseases which are categorized according to these glands.

A. Thyroid Gland – This is a list of endocrine disorders due to hypersecretion or hyposecretion of hormones by the thyroid gland.

Goiter – The thyroid gland is enlarged
Hyperthyroidism – Secretion of tri-iodothyronine and thyroxine hormones are increased.
Hypothyroidism – Both thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine hormones are deficient
Thyroiditis – the most common is Hashimotos thyroiditis
Thyroid cancer – Malignant tumors have developed in the thyroid gland

B. Parathyroid Gland – These glands are located at the back of the thyroid gland. These glands are useful in maintaining calcium homeostasis in the body. Thus, disorders of these glands are associated with altered metabolism of calcium which is also a cause for bone disorders. Given below are the diseases and disorders of this gland:

Primary hyperparathyroidism – the parathyroid glands have increased their functioning.
Secondary hyperparathyroidism – This is usually due to hypercalcemia affecting the glands.
Tertiary hyperparathyroidism – There is hyperplasia of the thyroid glands.
Hypoparathyroidism – The secretion of parathyroid hormones has decreased.
Osteoporosis – This is a bone disease due to deficiency of minerals particularly calcium when the parathyroid gland does not function properly.
Rickets – This occurs among children because of lack of calcium and vitamin D.
Osteomalacia – It is type of rickets commonly seen among adults.

C. Adrenal Gland – In humans, the adrenal glands are found on top of the kidneys. These glands usually secrete hormones which are responsible for the behavior and mood of humans. These hormones are corticosteroids such as cortisol and catecholamines such as epinephrine. Thus, the disorders of this gland are typically disorders which alter the mood of humans. These are the following:

Addison’s disease – There is hyposecretion of hormone in the adrenals.
Conn’s syndrome – This is because of overproduction of aldosterone.
Cushing’s syndrome – this is a disorder that is caused by increased secretion of cortisol.
Pheochromocytoma – this is a tumor present in the medulla of the adrenal glands.
Adrenocortical carcinoma – This is an uncommon cancer of the adrenal glands.

D. Pituitary Gland – This gland is responsible for secreting the maximum number of hormones which regulate the growth and development of the human body. Therefore, the list of diseases is numerous because of an abnormal pituitary gland or alterations in secretion of any hormone.

Diabetes insipidus occurs because of insufficient secretion of vasopressin secreted by the posterior pituitary gland.
Hypopitutiarism – Secretion of pituitary hormones is decreased
Acromegaly occurs when there is overproduction of the growth hormone.
Prolactinoma is a type of tumor which results from increased secretion of prolactin.
Sex hormone disorders – The pituitary gland is responsible for secreting different sex hormones. Hence, if secretion is altered, the sexual development or regulation of sexual characteristics is affected.

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